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How humans exchange goods, services, and information across borders.

International relations and activities were initially inspired by global business. We began to interact with each other because we needed to satisfy our basic needs and due to limited resources, it forced us to begin to look beyond our borders to find more resources to satisfy both our needs and our curiosity. It inspired trade, the exchange of goods and services and with it, information. We bartered, then used coin as currency, and now we use cryptocurrencies to exchange. The human need for these three things is insatiable and those who have managed to provide these needs the best have reflected their success in revenues and profits.

Present and future challenges are gradually shifting needs and unsatisfactory incomes are prompting frugality. Challenges can also be opportunities for businesses as we are now seeing with climate change and the technologies of the third and fourth industrial revolutions. These challenges provide both an opportunity and threat that is bound to create new business models that are fit for the times. Common challenges will amplify these new business models.

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